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(17/04) Курс “Анализ геномных данных”, Москва, 2 – 11 июля 2012
Уважаемые коллеги, Со 2 по 11 июля 2012 года Учебный центр Института биологии гена РАН организует практический десятидневный курс по статистическому анализу геномных дан...
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(12/03) Впервые получено изображение атомов, движущихся в молекуле
Исследователи из Университетов Огайо и Канзаса впервые смогли получить изображения атомов, движущихся в молекуле. С помощью ультрабыстрого лазера исследователи выбивали элек...
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(12/03) Наблюдение за распределением зарядов в молекуле
Исследователи из Швейцарии впервые с помощью экспериментов смогли визуализировать распределение зарядов отдельной молекуле. Предполагается, что результаты работы могут при...
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(22/01) Простой способ разделения углеродных нанотрубок
Существуют одностенные углеродные нанотрубки [single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)] с металлическим и полупроводниковым типом проводимости, однако для использования этих...
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Результаты 1 - 10 из 12
1.

What is the Science? What Have People instead of, and Why Do We Need Corrosiology?1

V. M. Novakovskii

 

Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, ul. Vorontsovo Pole 10, Moscow, 103064 Russia

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Received November 18, 2003

 

Abstract — People need a science comprehending both their and its own destination, universal, far-seeing, harmonizing the whole biosphere, and preventing from mistakes. It was such a science, Ya.M. Kolotyrkin has dreamt about, and such was its own ancient trend. However,… Having substantially accelerated its development and pragmatized it, the industrial revolution split it into a handy set of narrow-seeing weakly bound branches, and thus deprived them of panoramic sight and ability to distinguish between the essence and illusion. At first sight, everything is OK (especially after the Scientific-technological revolution that has illusively conquered crises): the science finds mineral deposits, discovers the ways of and teaches how to make something of them, invents and develops everything that fills our everyday life, serves and substitutes for us in industry, joins the continents, and so on. But in essence… this is the shortest way to the hell for our children’s children. We do pave it ourselves by exhausting the mines and wells so as if the mineral resources, which were created by the Supreme Intelligence (by means of the numerous past biospheres for billions of years!), do not have a price that hundreds and thousands times exceeds the market cost of everything we produce of them. By means of a thorough analysis, unbreakable semantic definitions of the basic triad of scientific categories Life, Science, and Verity are clarified. As an example of the quality of theories that are still in use, absolutely feebleness of the S.Arrhenius concept of electrolytic dissociation (which has stopped the development of electrochemistry for more than a century) is shown. The reunion and closest cooperation between the science and Church is the last chance for the man to get the True Science and Life!
30/09/2008 | 925 Посещения | Печать

2.

Revealing the Nature and Number of Active Centers on Metal Surfaces with Electrochemical Scanning Tunnel Microscope1

E. V. Kasatkin

 

State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation “Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry,”
ul. Vorontsovo Pole 10, Moscow, 103064 Russia

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Received February 9, 2004

 

Abstract — Measurements with scanning tunnel microscope are analyzed, as regards the relative number and properties of tunnel-active centers at metal surfaces (Pt single crystals, polycrystalline Rh, Pd, and Cu, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, etc.), in particular, at controlled potential. The relative number and local properties of the tunnel-active sites, their tunnel conductance, and donor–acceptor properties are calculated. A tunnel exchange current observed, similar to the exchange current of electrochemical reactions, reflects reversible charge transfer across the interface showing equal rates of the forward and backward processes. A possible correlation between the tunnel and electrochemical stages of the charge transfer is discussed.

30/09/2008 | 886 Посещения | Печать

3.

Kinetics and Mechanism of the Gold Corrosion Dissolution in Hypochlorite Solutions

L. F. Kozin*, V. A. Prokopenko**, and A. K. Bogdanova*

 

* Vernadskii Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
pr. Palladina 32-34, Kiev, 252142 Ukraine

** Ovcharenko Institute of Biocolloid Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine

Received April 23, 2001; in final form, July 1, 2004

 

Abstract — Kinetics and mechanism of the gold metal dissolution by means of corrosion in chloride–hypochlorite solutions are studied. The dependences of the dissolution rate on the solution pH, sodium hypochlorite concentration, and temperature are determined. Conditions of the gold passivation surface during its corrosion in the studied solutions are discussed. The first-order rate constants of the gold dissolution (ki = 0.079–0.4030 s–1) at temperatures from 277 to 304 K and others are calculated. The equilibrium constants of the dissolution reac-tions in acid and alkaline chloride–hypochlorite solutions are different: 1.2 106 and 2.39 102, respectively. The activation energy calculated from the temperature dependence of the rate constants (53.43 kJ/mol) evidences a kinetic control of the gold dissolution. Quantitative data on the composition of surface adsorption films, formed by oxidation gold dissolution products, are obtained using the Auger spectroscopy.
30/09/2008 | 856 Посещения | Печать

4.

Theory of Dissolution of Binary Alloys and the Tamman Rule

A. I. Shcherbakov

 

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 31, Moscow, 117071 Russia

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Received March 17, 2003

 

Abstract — A model of the dissolution of binary alloys, taking into account the component interaction energy, is suggested. The partial rate constants, as well as the dissolution rate depend on the concentration stepwise, according to the formula n/Z where Z is the lattice’ coordination number. Using these dependences, transitive and steady-state equations of the alloys selective dissolution are derived.
30/09/2008 | 875 Посещения | Печать

5.

Exfoliation Corrosion of Aluminum Alloys and Their Protection by Coatings with Metal-filled Primers

V. S. Sinyavskii, V. D. Kalinin, V. M. Gladyshev, and T. Ya. Yakimova

 

OAO All-Russian Institute of Light Alloys, ul. Gorbunova 2, Moscow, 121596 Russia

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Received March 21, 2003

 

Abstract — Exfoliation corrosion (EC) is shown to represent a special type of stress corrosion which develops under the surface of aluminum high-alloyed alloys like frame016frame1 and frame295frame3frame41. Protection against EC by using common paint coatings (PCs) is ineffective. Indoor tests demonstrate that EC can be almost completely suppressed by using PCs with zinc-filled primers (ZFPs). After 2-year tests in sea tropics, common PCs do not prevent the appearance and development of EC. At the same time, samples protected by PCs that involve ZFP EPframe5057 demonstrate the total absence of EC including bare surface areas up to 5 and even 10 mm wide where the coating has failed. Similar results are obtained in 6-year tests in north sea atmosphere. Potentiodynamic studies of different protection schemes confirm the electrochemical protection mechanism of aluminum alloys against EC by using ZFPs. It is shown that ZFPs can also be used during maintenance works. The advantages of metal-filled primers based on polyurethane over those based on epoxy resin are shown.
30/09/2008 | 941 Посещения | Печать

6.

The Effect of Sorbed Hydrogen on the Corrosion Potential of Iron in Acidic Sulfate Solutions

T. A. Nenasheva and A. I. Marshakov

 

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 31, Moscow, 117071 Russia

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Received June 26, 2003

 

Abstract — By using a bipolar electrode, i.e., a membrane, it is shown that hydrogen absorbed by a metal does not virtually affect the cathodic evolution of hydrogen. The change in the iron corrosion potential is determined by the effect of sorbed hydrogen on the anodic process.
30/09/2008 | 960 Посещения | Печать

7.

Chemically Deposited Niframe0Wframe1B Coatings: Composition, Structure, and Properties1

A. B. Drovosekov, M. V. Ivanov, V. M. Krutskikh, E. N. Lubnin, and Yu. M. Polukarov

 

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Leninskii pr. 31, Moscow, 119991 Russia

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Received December 26, 2003

 

Abstract - The effect of temperature and solution components of the chemical catalytic reduction on the composition of Ni–W–B alloy coatings is studied. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in combination with the layer-by-layer profile analysis is used to determine the chemical state of elements and the composition of surface and bulk layers of the coatings containing 28 and 1.8 wt % (10 and 12 at. %) tungsten and boron, respectively. The surface of such coatings is shown to contain up to 90 and 80 at. % reduced nickel and boron, respectively. The deposits have amorphous structure. The effect of thermal treatment conditions on the structure and microhardness of the coatings is investigated. The coatings with a tungsten content of 10 at. % are shown to be nonmagnetic.
30/09/2008 | 1028 Посещения | Печать

8.

Corrosion Inhibitors of the SNPKh Type. 1. Development and Study of the Protective Effects of Corrosion Inhibitors Based on Heterocyclic Nitrogen-Containing Compounds

O. V. Ugryumov*, O. A. Varnavskaya*, V. N. Khlebnikov*, Yu. N. Kamzina*, D. N. Lebedev*, G. V. Romanov*, Ya. V. Ivshin**, R. A. Kaidrikov**, F. Sh. Shakirov***, and F. I. Dautov***

 

* JSC “Research Institute of Oil-Field Chemistry” (NIIneftepromkhim),
ul. N. Ershova 29, Kazan, 420045 Tatarstan, Russia

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** Kazan State Technological University, ul. Karla Marksa 68, Kazan, 420015 Tatarstan, Russia

*** TatNIPIneft’, Bugulma, Tatarstan, Russia

Received October 14, 2003

 

Abstract — Protective effects of aryloxycarbonylmethylisoquinolinium chlorides on the iron surface were studied. The best results were obtained with decylphenoxycarbonylmethylisoquinolinium chloride (DPCMIQC)containing the alkyl C10 in the aryl fragment. This salt was used as an active component in an SNPKh-type corrosion inhibitor. Experimental data for this inhibitor were compared with the results obtained in bench and commercial field tests in West Siberia and the Ural–Volga region.
30/09/2008 | 1158 Посещения | Печать

9.

A Role of Manganese in the Corrosion and Electrochemical Behavior of Stainless Steels

A. G. Tyurin

 

Chelyabinsk State University, ul. Brat’ev Kashirinykh 129, Chelyabinsk, 454021 Russia

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Received June 8, 1999; in final form, December 15, 2003

 

Abstract — Sections of phase diagrams for the Fe–Mn–O system and potential–pH diagrams for the systems Fe–Mn–H2O, -phase (austenite of 12frame018frame110frame2 or 10frame314frame414frame54frame6 steels)–H2O, and MnS–H2O at 25°C are plotted. Thermodynamic aspects of the effect of manganese on the corrosion and electrochemical behavior of stainless steels are discussed.
30/09/2008 | 1252 Посещения | Печать

10.

Carbon Dioxide Corrosion of Oil and Gas Field Equipment

L. S. Moiseeva

 

Scientific and Engineering Center, Oil Company “LUKOIL,” ul. Usacheva 11, Moscow, 119048 Russia

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Received August 6, 1999; in final form, December 3, 2003

 

Abstract — Conditions for carbon dioxide corrosion in oil, gas, and gas-condensate fields are discussed. Corrosion mechanisms in oil, gas, and gas-condensate fields and gas and oil pipelines are compared. Various factors are shown to affect the CO2 corrosion rate of steel in oil and gas field media.
30/09/2008 | 1163 Посещения | Печать

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