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(11/10) Ученые из ИФХЭ РАН и МГУ под руководством Ольги Виноградовой поняли, как «полосатая» гидрофобность..
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(11/10) Ученые обнаружили пути проникновения вирусов гриппа и ВИЧ в организм
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(17/04) Курс “Анализ геномных данных”, Москва, 2 – 11 июля 2012
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(12/03) Впервые получено изображение атомов, движущихся в молекуле
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Results 1 - 10 of 15

Dynamics of Stress-Strained State and Corrosion of a Reservoir Casing. Theoretical Calculation

R. K. Galimov


N.P. Mel’nikov Central Scientific, Research, and Planning Institute of Building Metal Structures,
ul. Arkhitektora Vlasova 49, Moscow, 117393 Russia

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Received April 17, 2006


Abstract — The results of mathematical modeling of the evolution of the stress-strained state of a reservoir casing are presented and discussed.

PACS numbers: 81.40.Ef; 81.40.Lm; 81.40.Np

DOI: 10.1134/S0033173207010018
12/09/2008 | 1084 Hits | Print


Thermodynamic Causes of the High Diffusion Rate of Atoms in the Superficial Layer of a Metallic Electrode

Yu. Ya. Andreev


Moscow State Institute of Steel and Alloys, Leninskii pr. 2, Moscow, Russia

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Received January 31, 2006


Abstract — Concentration of vacancies NV(S) in a superficial layer (SL) of fcc lattices of Ag, Cu, and Au metals is thermodynamically estimated and analyzed. The calculations are based on a thermodynamic vacancy model of the metal SLs, by which the NV(S) value is related to the surface Gibbs energy Gs = frame0RT ln NV(S). A strongGs dependence on the electrode potential and the zero point value of the metal results in the increase in NV(S) value, which reaches nearly 10frame12 at standard potentials of the above metals. The high surface self-diffusivity of atoms (D10frame215 cm2/s) calculated from the in situ STM measurements of the electrode surfaces is due to the high concentration of vacancies in the metal SLs.


PACS numbers: 05.70.Np; 68.35.Md

DOI: 10.1134/S003317320701002X
12/09/2008 | 1238 Hits | Print


Theoretical Estimation of the Ionization Potential of Water in Condensed Phase. II. Superficial Water Layers

Yu. V. Novakovskaya


Laboratory of Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Structure, Chair of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry,
Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 Russia

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Received May 7, 2006


Abstract — Quantum chemical calculations of neutral and charged (H2O)n water clusters modeling fragments of a real hydrogen-bond network of water and dynamic simulations of the clusters either upon the electron removal from a stable neutral cluster or upon the excitation of various cluster vibrations enabled us to distinguish separate stages of the structure reorganization. Thermal motion of molecules in a liquid modeled by the low-frequency rotational vibrations and swinging of molecules prevents the formation of cations with the opti-mum mutual arrangement of the OH radical and H3O+ ion. Judging from the typical periods of reactive vibra-tions and those motions, which impede the desired structure reorganization, the most probable should be the formation of OHframe0H2Oframe1H3O+ fragments in liquid water. The energy necessary for the ionization of superficial water layers (at the irradiation) can be estimated from the intermediate ionization potentials of water clusters. Extrapolating the dependence of these potentials on the number of water molecules constituting the cluster provided the first ever theoretical estimate of the threshold ionization energy of water: 9.5 eV.


PACS numbers: 31.15.Ar; 31.15.Qg; 33.15.Ry; 34.50.Ez; 36.40.Wa

DOI: 10.1134/S0033173207010031
12/09/2008 | 1218 Hits | Print


Thermodynamics of Chemical and Electrochemical Stability of Corrosion Active Nonmetal Inclusions

A. G. Tyurina, I. Yu. Pyshmintsevb, I. V. Kostitsynab, and I. M. Zubkovab


aChelyabinsk State University, ul. Br. Kashirinykh 129, Chelyabinsk, 454021 Russia

bOAO RosNITI, ul. Novorossiiskaya 30, Chelyabinsk, 454139 Russia

Received April 19, 2006


Abstract — Diagrams potential–pH are plotted for different phase components of corrosive nonmetal inclusions in steels in sulfide-containing media at 25°C, 1 atm (air), and ai = 10frame23 mol/l. Thermodynamic peculiarities of their corrosion and electrochemical behavior are analyzed.


PACS numbers: 81.65.Kn

DOI: 10.1134/S0033173207010043
12/09/2008 | 1251 Hits | Print


Physicochemical Properties of Electrodeposits Based on Tungsten Carbide and Zirconium Diboride on Steels

V. V. Malyshev and A. I. Gab


National Technical University of Ukraine “Kiev Polytechnical Institute,” pl. Pobedy 37,
korp. 4, komn. 039, Kiev-56, 03056 Ukraine

Open International University of Human Development “Ukraine,” ul. Khorevaya 1g, Kiev-71, 04071 Ukraine

Received October 20, 2005


Abstract — The electrodeposition of coatings based on tungsten carbide and zirconium diboride on steel materials and their physicochemical and mechanical properties are studied. The coatings enhance the wear resistance of steel samples by a factor of 6–11 and the abrasive stability by a factor of 7–10.


PACS numbers: 81.15 Pq; 81.65.Kn

DOI: 10.1134/S0033173207010055
12/09/2008 | 1319 Hits | Print


On the Mechanism of the Effect of Plastic Deformation on the Corrosion Resistance of High-Strength Cast Iron

D. A. Baranov


Donetsk National Engneering University, ul. Artema 58, Donetsk, 83000 Ukraine

Received September 14, 2005


Abstract — The mechanism of the effect of preliminary plastic deformation on the corrosion resistance of highstrength cast iron is analyzed. Based on the experimental results, a scheme of the mechanism considering the contribution of the variation in the number and shape of graphite inclusions to the anisotropy of corrosion rate of strained cast iron is proposed.


PACS numbers: 81.40.-z; 68.55.Gk

DOI: 10.1134/S0033173207010067
12/09/2008 | 1256 Hits | Print


Anodic Dissolution of Iron Silicides in Alkaline Electrolyte

A. B. Sheina, I. L. Rakityanskayaa, and S. F. Lomaevab


a Perm’ State University, ul. Bukireva 15, Perm, 614600 Russia

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b Physicotechnical Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Izhevsk, Russia

Received November 11, 2005


Abstract — Anodic dissolution of iron and its silicides (FeSi, FeSi2, as well as the eutectic alloy FeSi2–Si) and pure Si, in 0.1 to 5.0 N NaOH solutions is studied by cyclic voltammetry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Principal characteristic features of the silicide anodic dissolution are revealed and the composition of surface films investigated. It is shown that, despite an increase in Si solubility at higher pHs, the iron silicides are highly resistant to anodic dissolution due to especial protective properties of the complex oxide surface film.


PACS numbers: 81.65.Rv; 82.45.Bb

DOI: 10.1134/S0033173207010079
12/09/2008 | 1239 Hits | Print


The Effect of Medium on the Corrosion and Electrochemical Behavior of Nickel

V. V. Parshutina, N. L. Bogdashkinab, and G. P. Chernovab


aInstitute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, ul. Akademicheskaya 5, Chisinau, MD-2028 Moldova

b Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Leninskii pr. 31, Moscow, 119991 Russia

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Received January 13, 2006


Abstract — Electrochemical and corrosion properties of nickel in neutral, alkaline, and acidic solutions are studied. Chemical and phase composition of surface films and surface morphology are examined. The effect of electrolyte composition and concentration on the metal removal rate in the course of broaching is determined. Optical, electrochemical, and gravimetrical methods, x-ray diffraction analysis, and thermogravimetry were used in the work.


PACS numbers: 82.42.Bb; 82.45.Kr

DOI: 10.1134/S0033173207010080
12/09/2008 | 1178 Hits | Print


Steady-State Anodic Dissolution of Iron in Neutral and Close-to-Neutral Media

A. Yu. Aleksanyan, A. N. Podobaev, and I. I. Reformatskaya


*FGUP GNTs RF Karpov Research Institute of Physical Chemistry, ul. Vorontsovo pole 10, Moscow, 103064 Russia

Received May 6, 2006


Abstract—In neutral and close-to-neutral solutions, which contain no surface-active substances, iron dissolves via a two-step scheme. The transfer of the first electron across the interface involves water molecules that dissociate during the adsorption; the transfer of the second electron limits the process under steady-state condi-tions. In parallel, a passivator, namely, adsorbed oxygen is formed via a similar scheme. The passivator is removed from the surface due to its chemical reaction with hydroxonium ions, water molecules, or hydroxide ions. The process is adequately described by a mathematical model based on an assumption that the metal dissolves from an energy-uniform surface free from passivating species.


PACS numbers: 82.85.Bb

DOI: 10.1134/S0033173207010092
12/09/2008 | 1092 Hits | Print


Cadmium Electrodeposition from Waterframe0Acetone Perchlorate Baths

V. V. Kuznetsov, L. M. Skibina, and R. R. Khalikov


Rostov State University, ul. Zorge 7, Rostov-on-Don, 344090 Russia

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Received October 20, 2005


Abstract — It is the composition of the bath that determines a) the nature of species adsorbed and reduced at the cathode (such as molecules of a nonaqueous solvent, perchlorate anions, metal ions, or their complexes with organic ligands) and b) the electrode reaction rate. The process is best inhibited in a range of water structure stabilization under conditions of the predominant adsorption of acetone molecules, when the discharge of electroactive species is preceded by their “constrained” dissociation during the penetration through the layer adsorbed at the cathode. The highest reduction rate was observed in the acetone structuration range, when the adsorption of perchlorate anions reaches a maximum because of the desalting effect of the mixed solvent and the selective solvation ('-effect).


PACS numbers: 81.15.Pk; 82.45 Cj

DOI: 10.1134/S0033173207010109
12/09/2008 | 1101 Hits | Print

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